Massachusetts recognizes criminal libel as a common law offense, though it does not have a criminal libel statute. Commonwealth v. Clapp, 4 Mass. 163 (Mass. 1808). However, there does not appear to be any Massachusetts criminal libel case law since the Supreme Court's 1966 decision in Ashton v. Kentucky, which invalidated the Kentucky common law crime of criminal libel as unconstitutionally vague and overbroad. Ashton v. Kentucky, 384 U.S. 195 (1966). Following the Court's decision in Ashton, many states have repealed their criminal libel statutes or ceased to recognize the common law crime.

Privileges and Defenses

Massachusetts courts recognize a number of privileges and defenses in the context of defamation actions, including substantial truth, the opinion and fair comment privileges, the wire service defense, and the fair report privilege. Massachusetts has neither recognized nor rejected the neutral reportage privilege.

There also is an important provision under section 230 of the Communications Decency Act that may protect YOU if a third party – not you or your employee or someone acting under your direction – posts something on your blog or website that is defamatory. We cover this protection in more detail in the section on Publishing the Statements and Content of Others.

Substantial Truth

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