The CMLP is not aware of any cases in Arizona that apply the single publication rule in the context of a statement published on the Internet. If you are aware of any Arizona cases that acknowledge the single publication rule in the Internet context, please notify us.

California Defamation Law

Note: This page covers information specific to California. For general information concerning defamation, see the Defamation Law section of this guide.

California Elements of Defamation

Defamation, which consists of both libel and slander, is defined by case law and statute in California. See Cal. Civ. Code §§ 44, 45a, and 46.

The elements of a defamation claim are:

publication of a statement of fact
that is false,*
has a natural tendency to injure or which causes "special damage," and
the defendant's fault in publishing the statement amounted to at least negligence.
Publication, which may be written or oral, means communication to a third person who understands the defamatory meaning of the statement and its application to the person to whom reference is made. Publication need not be to the “public” at large; communication to a single individual other than the plaintiff is sufficient. Republishing a defamatory statement made by another is generally not protected.

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